1833(1837).Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, (Volume 8. 1837)

1833.Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, (Volume 8. 1837)
Author: Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain)
Publisher: London, C. Knight
Volume 8 1837.

Penny cyclopaedia says It is Sea of Japan.
Korean fake propaganda said "Sea of Japan is spread after annexaton of Korea on 1910. The name of sea of Japan already established as a international conventional around early 19th century. Ofcourse bloggers here already recognize Korean claims is filled up with distorture.

Text: the Sea of Japan.
COREA is a large peninsula on the eastern coast of Asia, whose sovereign is tributary to the emperors of China and Japan, but otherwise independent The peninsula is surrounded on the cast by the sea of Japan, on the south by the straits of Corea—which divides it from the Japanese island of Kiou-siou—and on the west by the Hoang-Hai, or Yellow Sea, which separates it from China Proper. It extends, from south to north, from 34° to 40° N. lat., or about 420 miles; but the countries north of the peninsula, as far as 43°, are also subject to the sovereign of Corea, so that the whole country from south to north may be 630 miles. Its width, lying between 124° and 134° E. lat., varies from 100 to 200 miles. Its area may be about 90,000 square miles, or somewhat more than Great Britain. Corea appears to be a very mountainous country. Oil its northern boundary is the Chang-pe-shan, a high mountainrange, partly covered with snow, which separates the Coreans from their northern neighbours, the Manchoo. From this chain another branches off in a south-south-east direction, which traverses the whole of the peninsula as far as the strait of Corea. Its highest part is near the shores of the sea of Japan, towards which it descends with great rapidity; and in this part the level or cultivable tracts are of small extent. The numerous offsets to the west, which are less elevated and steep, contain between them large and well-cultivated valleys. The largest rivers occur in the northern part of the country, where the Thumen-Kiang, rising in the centre of the Chang-pe-shan, runs north-east, and towards its mouth east. It falls into the sea of Japan. Its banks, though fertile, are uninhabited, in conformity to the order of the Chinese emperor; the object of this policy being to have a well-settled boundary between Corea and the Manchoo. The Yalukiang rises nearly in the samo place, and runs first west, then south. It falls into the Hoang-Hai, according to the Chinese geographers, with twelve mouths. It is said to be navigable for junks 35 miles (100 lees), and for barges about 180 miles (520 lees). The rivers which traverse the valleys of the peninsula have a short course. The coasts of Corea are high and bold, except in the innermost recesses of the numerous bays and harbours. There are few islands along the eastern shores, except in Broughton's Bay(39°30'N.lat.), where they are numerous. In the strait of Corea they are also very numerous, and still more so between the island of Quelpaerts and the southern coast. Between 34° and 35° N. lat. and 125° and 126° E. long., Captain Maxwell found the sea literally dotted with islands and rocks, which he called the Corean Archipelago, and the most south-western group Amherst Isles, i arther north (38° N. lat.) is another group, called James Hall's Archipelago. These islands are rocky and high, but generally inhabited. Tliey are rarely more than three or four miles in length. The largest, the island of Quelpaerts, south of the peninsula, is about sixty miles in circuit, and in the centre a peak rises upwards of 6000 feet above the sea. Corea is a very cold country. For four months the northern rivers are covered with ice, and barley only is cultivated along their banks. Even the river near King-ki-tao freezes so hard that carriages pass over the ice. In summer the heat appears not to be great. On the eastern coasts fogs are frequent; and La Perouse thinks he may compare them in density with those along the coasts of Labrador. Rice is extensively cultivated on the peninsula, as well as cotton and silk, which are employed in the manufactures of the country, and exported in the manufactured state. Hemp is also cultivated, and in the northern district ginseng is gathered. Tobacco is raised all over the country. Horses and cattle are plentiful on the mountain-pastures The former, which are small, are exported to China. In the northern districts the sable and other animals give fur. The royal tiger, which is a native of the country, is covered with a longer and closer hair than hi Bengal. On the eastern coast whales are numerous. It seems that Corea is rich in minerals. Gold, silver, iron, salt, and coals, are noticed in the Chinese geography. The inhabitants, who are of the Mongol race, resemble the Chinese and Japanese, but they are taller and stouter. Among them are some whose appearance seems to indicate a different origin. They speak a language different from the Chinese and Manchoo, though it contains many Chinese words. They have also a different mode of writing it, though the Chinese characters are in general use among the upper classes. In manner and civilization they much resemble the Chinese, and are likewise Buddhists. Education is highly valued, especially among the upper classes. They seem to have a rich literature of their own, but their language is very imperfectly known in Europe. The valleys seem to be well peopled; but we are so little acquainted with the interior, that hitherto nobody has ventured to give an estimate of the population. King-ki-tao, the capital, which is a few miles north of a considerable river Han-kiang, appears to be a large place, and is said to possess a considerable library, of which one of the brothers of the king is chief librarian. The name of this town is properly Kin-phu, near Hanhang, or Hanyang. The mouth of the river Tsing-kiang (between 34°and 35"), on the ■western coast, is said to have a very spacious harbour. Fushan, according to the Chinese geography, called by Broughton Chosan or Thosan, is a bay at the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula, opposite the Japanese island of Tsu-sima, at the innermost recess of which the town of King-tsheou is built, which carries on an active trade with Japan, and is the only place to which the Japanese are permitted to come. In industry the Cnreans do not appear to be much inferior to the Chinese and Japanese. They mainly excel in the manufacture of cotton cloth and cotton paper, both of which are brought in great quanties to Peking. Other manufactured articles which are exported are silk goods, plain and embroidered, and mats. They have attained considerable skill in working iron, as swords are sent, with other articles, to the emperor of China as tribute. No country is less accessible to Europeans than Corea. They are not permitted to remain even a few days on any part of the coast. It is not well known what is the reason of this policy, but it seems that the mutual jealousy of the neighbouring Chinese and Japanese holds the king in great subjection. The commerce of the country is accordingly limited to China and Japan; and even with these countries is restricted in a very strange way. No maritime intercourse is allowed between China and Corea, but all commerce is carried on by means of the narrow road which leads along the sea to the town of Fang-hoan, in Leao-tong. But as it traverses the wide listrict which by order of the Chinese emperor must remain uninhabited, it has become the haunt of numberless ferocious animals, and hence the passage is much dreaded by travellers. Commerce therefore is principally carried on in winter, when the shallow HoangHai is covered with ice along its shores, which are more favourable to the transport of goods than the bad mountainroads. Besides the above-mentioned manufactured goods, gold, silver, iron, rice, fruits, oil, and some other articles, are brought by this road to Peking. We do not know what the Corcanstake in return to their country. The commercial intercourse between Corea and Japan is limited to that between the island of Tsu-sima and the bay of Chosan, and is carried on by Japanese merchants, who have their warehouses at each place. They import sapan-wood, pepper, alum, and the skins of deei.buffalos, and goats, with the manufactured articles of Japan, and those brought by the Dutch from Europe; they take in return the manufactures of Corea, and a few other articles, especially ginseng. We know nothing of the political condition of the country, except what is communicated by Klaproth from the Japanese geographer Rinsifce; according to whom there are sixty-four commanders of 10,000 men, which would give an army of 640,000 men, and 213 war-vessels. Ritter thinks that these and many other statements of the geographer are taken from the court-almanac of King-ki-tao, and that little reliance can be placed on them. (Broughton; Maxwell, in Ellis's Journal of Lord Amherst's Embassy; Mac Leod; Basil Hall; Hamel van Gorcum; Klaproth, in San Kohf Tsou; and Ritter's Asien.)

0 件のコメント: